It is estimated that there are tens of thousands of young people under 18 serving in militias in about 60 countries. They are particularly vulnerable to all of the impacts listed above 5. Action on this cluster of tragic phenomena is usually considered under two categories — how to mitigate some of the damage to children and how to heal children after they are damaged. Implement international humanitarian law regarding the protection of children in war. The Geneva Conventions and the Convention on the Rights of the Child deal with protection of war-affected children with regard to food, clothing, medicine, education, and family reunion.
In addition, they are intended to protect children from ethnic cleansing and recruitment into armed forces. However, compliance with these instruments is poor, especially when recruiting children to armed forces is concerned.
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Ensure that general economic sanctions against a country are never used again, as they were used in Iraq as a substitute for war. Children and poor adults are those who suffer most from economic sanctions. Use of economic sanctions should be considered a war crime, just as is laying siege to a city to starve its population. Ensure special consideration for children who are in flight from war zones and who live in camps for refugees and internally displaced people, especially children who are unaccompanied by adults.
Special considerations need to be given for family reunion, systems of distribution of resources sometimes to women rather than to men , internal layout of camps to prevent attacks on girls , the provision of facilities for education and play, and special help for child-headed families. Institute measures to reduce sexual exploitation and gender-based violence against women and girls in war. These measures include training of soldiers, including peacekeeping forces; inclusion of relevant interventions in humanitarian responses to population emergencies in war; reporting and support systems for victims of rape in camps for refugees and internally displaced persons; the prosecution of rape as a war crime; and making organized rape a crime against humanity.
Perpetrators should be prosecuted for such actions as destroying clinics, schools, and hospitals — all of which are protected by international law. Where access to health services, such as immunization, is hindered by the violent conflict, there should be humanitarian ceasefires to enable access. Since , several peace agreements have specifically referred to children in the post-violence arrangements for disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration 6. Children are recognized as victims and perpetrators of violence in several truth-and-reconciliation commissions, but children have played little role in these systems.
Physical and psychological rehabilitation is instituted to varying degrees depending on the resources available. Sometimes these are minimal or absent. There have been many efforts to help the psychological impacts of war on children. Few have been evaluated. Some efforts at rehabilitation of war-affected children include social healing moving toward education in the Culture of Peace. This is an approach to primary prevention of recurrence of war.
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It may strike the reader that, although the many efforts to make war less damaging for children are important and should continue and be strengthened, this is a pathetically feeble response in the light of the intensity and magnitude of the suffering involved. From a certain perspective, there is even something preposterous about an exclusive focus on making war more tolerable for children.
Poverty, on the other hand, like war, may be treated with the assumption that it will always be with us, and is a fact of life.
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These assumptions should be vigorously challenged. It is time for health professionals to define war as a serious global public health problem. I don't think it will worked, but my best friend showed me this site and it does! I received my most wanted books. My friends are so angry because they don't know how I have all this high quality ebooks. And I still keep silent haha The are so many fake sites which said they have the book that I want like latest Harry Potter.
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The Faces of Peace: Veterans of the Canadian Armed Forces As Christians, we believe we are called to build an authentic peace that is based on respect for human dignity and a commitment to the common good, not on the balance of weapons. Military Manuals: U. The impact of war on children. Reward Yourself Ensure that general economic sanctions against a country are never used again, as they were used in Iraq as a substitute for war.
Petersburg in January , protesters were fired on and killed, an event that triggered months of protests. The revolt continued throughout the year. In the fall of Tsar Nicholas finally compromised. He issued the October Manifesto, which laid the groundwork for the protection of civil rights, the creation of a constitution, and the establishment of a parliament called the Duma. These concessions appeased enough of the revolutionaries for Nicholas to stay in power.
Many others viewed the October Manifesto as too little, too late. Inspired by the writings of Karl Marx , who foresaw a revolt in which laborers would become the ruling class, revolutionary figures, such as Lenin, continued to agitate against the tsar. Located near the front line with Germany, Petrograd the former St. Exhausted by the war and food shortages, by early Petrograd was a powder keg of despair and anger with those in power.
What happened next was not just a revolution, but multiple revolutions; a rejection not just of the state, but of all figures of authority: judges, policemen, government officials, army and navy officers, priests, teachers, employers, landowners, village elders, and patriarchally minded fathers and husbands. Red flags and banners began to appear, calling for the downfall of the monarchy.
Despite the turmoil, the authorities could have contained the situation if they had avoided open conflict with the crowds.
Landmines in War and Peace: From Their Origin to Present Day
But the forces of the tsar opened fire, killing protesters. Rather than attack them, the soldiers joined the protesters, some even firing on their own officers. The authorities were, by now, almost deprived of military power in the capital. The expansion of the revolt led some to assume that events were being orchestrated by socialist parties.
In fact, they were driven by many individuals: soldiers, workers, and students, people whose names never made it into the history books. On February 27 a crowd came to the Tauride Palace—the seat of the Duma—looking for leaders. The majority of the leaders of the Petrograd Soviet had no intention of taking power. Instead, they wanted the Duma leaders to form a government in line with the doctrine laid down by Karl Marx: That in a country such as Russia, the first step toward a socialist order would be taken by bourgeois democrats.
On March 1, a provisional government was formed. The soviet pledged to support it as long as it adhered to a comprehensive list of democratic principles. The Duma also called on him to stand down.
A History of Landmines
On March 2, , Nicholas II gave up the throne. The end of the monarchy was marked by scenes of rejoicing throughout the Russian Empire. Symbols of monarchical power—emblems, coats of arms, double-headed eagles, and tsarist statues—were destroyed.
Although the Provisional Government saw itself as an interim body to guide the country through the war and the ongoing political upheaval, it nevertheless enacted significant reforms. Led by Prime Minister Prince Georgy Lvov, a liberal reformer, and Minister of Justice Aleksandr Kerensky—the lone socialist and only government figure who was also a member of the soviet—it swept away the old laws of the tsarist regime against freedoms of speech and assembly. From exile in Switzerland, the Bolshevik leader followed the rapid course of events in Petrograd with frustration. He finally returned to Russia on a sealed train provided by the Germans, who were hoping that his opposition to the war would undermine the Russian war effort.
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Even so, Lenin managed to win the Bolshevik Party around to his theses. Mass enrollments of workers and soldiers drawn to his charisma aided his cause. These new members knew little about Marxist theory and valued his efficiency: Why wait to reach socialism in two stages when they could get there in one? Discontent continued to spread throughout Russia from the cities to the countryside.
As part of the wider crisis in authority, the Petrograd Soviet had limited control over revolts in the provinces and agrarian communities.
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