Geologist and historian J. David Rogers explains how they worked :. The balloons were crafted from mulberry paper, glued together with potato flour and filled with expansive hydrogen. They were 33 feet in diameter and could lift approximately 1, pounds, but the deadly portion of their cargo was a lb anti-personnel fragmentation bomb, attached to a 64—foot long fuse that was intended to burn for 82 minutes before detonating.
The Japanese programmed the balloons to release hydrogen if they ascended to over 38, feet and to drop pairs of sand filled ballast bags if the balloon dropped below 30, feet, using an onboard altimeter. Three-dozen sand-filled ballast bags were hung from a 4-spoke aluminum wheel that was suspended beneath the balloon, along with the bomb. Each ballast bag weighed between 3 and 7 pounds. The bags were programmed to be released in pairs on opposing sides of the wheel so the balloon would not be tipped to one side or another, releasing any of the precious hydrogen.
In this way the balloons would rise in the daylight heat each day of the crossing and fall each evening, till their ballast bags were depleted, at which time the balloon and its deadly contents would descend upon whatever lay beneath it. The first balloons were launched in late , landing in the U.
By the following day they landed as far away as Thermopolis, Wyoming. Some even landed in Canada. On March 5, , six Americans a minister and five children were killed by one of the grounded balloons in Oregon while attempting to pull it through the forest back to their camp. The U.foxysnowgear.com/includes/virtual/free-online-dating-service-singles.php
PROJECT Z: AIR WAR JAPAN 1946
The American public was eventually made aware of the balloons after the war. Photos via U. The Japanese managed to build three of these behemoths during the war, vessels which hold the record as the largest conventionally powered submarines ever built. As part of the Japanese plan to dominate the Pacific Ocean — including the Western seaboard of the United States — they were designed to attack the Panama Canal.
The subs were equipped with three Aichi M6A1 airplanes which could carry a torpedo or up to 1, pounds kg of bombs. They were housed in a watertight, pressure-resistant hangar.
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The planes were launched from a catapult located in front of the tower, and all three could be assembled, fueled, armed and launched within 45 minutes of surfacing. It even featured a German-inspired snorkel that was coated with a thick, rubber-like substance designed to absorb radar and sonar signals. The war ended before the Japanese could use them in combat.
Researchers only re-discovered it last year. Images CC. From until the end of the war, the Japanese experimented with various biological weapons, including the toxic defoliation bacilli bomb a precursor to Agent Orange and the flea bomb used to spread bubonic plague. The Imperial Japanese Army's notorious Unit — a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit — performed tests on human subjects with Bubonic plague, cholera, smallpox, botulism, and other diseases.
Japanese soldiers used these bombs to to launch biological attacks, infecting agriculture, reservoirs, wells, and other areas. According to Sheldon H. Harris, a historian at California State University in Northridge, more than , Chinese were killed in germ warfare field experiments. His work also shows that plague-infected animals were released toward the close of the war, which caused "outbreaks of the plague that killed at least 30, people in the Harbin area from through And as noted by historian Antony Beevor, the Japanese also planned to these weapons against American soldiers in the Pacific theatre, along with delivering disease-carrying balloon bombs to the United States.
They even had a plan in the summer of to use kamikaze pilots to dump plague-infected fleas over San Diego. Images via War Pardons. Related: Nazis used mosquitoes as biological weapons. It's worth noting that commanders of Unit were granted immunity from prosecution in exchange for sharing biological warfare secrets with the U. Relatedly, Japan was the only country to use chemical weapons, such as mustard gas, during the Second World War. These special dive suits were designed for the Japanese Special Attack Units to fend off an invasion of the Home islands by Allied forces.
The suits were armed with a mine containing 33 pounds 15 kg of explosives attached to a 16 foot 5 meter bamboo pole. The divers, weighed down by 20 pounds 9 kg of lead, would walk underwater for as much as six hours and at depths of feet meters. The divers, upon reaching the hull of an enemy ship, would detonate the explosives, killing themselves in the process.
It's not known if this suit was ever used in combat, but there are accounts of U. Image: U.
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The German Enigma Machine may be the most famous encryption device of the Second World War, but it was by no means the only one. In , the Japanese developed the "shiki O-bun In-ji-ki" or "97 Alphabetical Typewriter," named for its creation on the Japanese year This device was better known by its U. The machine consisted of two typewriters and an electrical rotor system with a character alphabetic switchboard.
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Like the Enigma machine that inspired it, a plaintext, or unencrypted message, could be manually inputted. But its main innovation was the second electric typewriter, which would print the encrypted message onto a piece of paper Enigma presented text in the form of blinking lights. Thus, only one person was needed to operate it.
And because the Japanese changed the key on a daily basis, codebreakers weren't able to find patterns in the messages. As Alberto Perez notes , "The switchboard contained 25 connections, which could be arranged into 6 pairs of connections, producing 70,,,, possible arrangements. Incredibly, U.
Project Z: Air War Japan - Mark Lewis - Google книги
You can learn more about how they did it and the Purple machine here. As the war progressed, and as at the Japanese refined their kamikaze techniques, they began to develop aircraft explicitly for that purpose. To build the machine, the Japanese used as little important raw materials as possible, and the plane's construction was extremely rudimentary. During combat, the Ohka was carried under the fuselage of a Mitsubishi G4M until the target was within close range, when it was released.
The pilot would try to glide as close to the target as possible before firing the rockets and smashing into the target. The weapon was armed with a 2, pound warhead. Its intense speed made it virtually impossible to intercept by anti-aircraft fire. Delivered from our UK warehouse in 4 to 14 business days. Seller Inventory I Book Description Xlibris. Seller Inventory ING Ships with Tracking Number!
Buy with confidence, excellent customer service!. Seller Inventory n. Mark Lewis. Publisher: Xlibris , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis "Following the disastrous defeat of the Japanese naval forces at the Battle of Midway the head of the Nakajima Aircraft Company drew up a new battle plan. Buy New Learn more about this copy.
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