Second, it may be left open on the loom but sewed up afterward, as in European tapestries from the 14th to the 17th centuries and also in some later types. Third, the weaver may dovetail his wefts, passing from one side and from the other in turn over a common warp. Dovetailing has the double disadvantage of making the fabric heavier at that point and of blurring the outline. Persian weavers of the 16th century developed a successful variant in silk tapestry rugs whereby a black outline weft was dovetailed over two warps—one of each of the adjacent colour areas—effectively hiding the coloured wefts in the compacting of the weave and providing a strong clear image.
The same device is found in pre-Columbian Peru. The fourth treatment— interlocking—was introduced in the Gobelins factory in the 18th century. Here wefts of juxtaposed colour segments are looped through each other between the two warps that mark, respectively, the margin of each colour.
This technique produces a continuous surface of even weight that was prized by the French weavers because the resultant effect more closely approximated that of painting. A curious variant of these weaving techniques is achieved when between every two rows of wefts there is a weft that runs the full width of the tapestry, thereby making the fabric solid.
Albany Engineered Composites: Weaving the Future in 3-D
This technique, if strictly classified, would be called brocade weaving, but the principle is that of tapestry, with the cloth insert subordinate. Rarely used, the technique was employed in Japan in the 7th and 8th centuries, in eastern Persia in the 10th century, and in pre-Columbian Peru. Instead of the plain-cloth method of weaving usually used in making tapestries, a twill technique can be used. In this type of weave the weft is floated over two or more warps, then under one or more warps, with this underpassage shifting always one to the right or left, thereby making a diagonal ribbing.
It is also used to make the famed Kashmir shawls and, along with many other crafts, was probably introduced into Kashmir from Persia, in the 16th century. In contemporary European tapestries this technique, usually called eccentric weaving, occasionally has been used in making some of the experimental abstract hangings of the later 20th century.
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European tapestry may be woven on either a vertical loom high-warp, or haute-lisse in French or a horizontal loom low-warp, or basse-lisse. In early high-warp looms the warps were attached to a beam at the top, and groups of warp threads were weighted at the bottom. The weft was beaten up i.
Textile Artists Weave 21st-Century Stories
High-warp looms of this type are pictured on ancient Greek vases. In later high-warp looms the vertical frame has heavy uprights holding a horizontal roller at top and bottom, on which the warps are stretched. Each warp passes through a loop of cord the lisses , and the loops encircling the warps that correspond to uneven numbers are fastened to one slender cylinder; those to the even-numbered warps are fastened to another cylinder. Both cylinders are above the weaver but within reach so that he can pull forward first with one, then with the other set of warps i.
The bobbin broche is a short, pointed, slim cylinder of polished wood on which the weft yarn is wound. The low-warp loom, on the other hand, has the rollers on the same level at table height so that the warps stretched between them are horizontal. The cylinders in both instances serve to roll up the finished portion and unroll a further length of unwoven warps so that the section in process is always taut and in a convenient relation to the weaver.
At both types of loom the weaver works from the back side, that is, he weaves the tapestry on the wrong side. He has, however, a hand mirror, which he puts through the unwoven warps holding it to reflect the right side of the portion in process. While the high-warp weaver can examine his finished work directly by walking around to the other side of his loom, the low-warp worker has to tilt up his frame. Charles Dickens. The Book of Sheffield. Catherine Taylor. Edgar Allan Poe. Letters of Note. Shaun Usher.
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The next stop was a microcomputed tomography CT lab. We also perform material variability testing here as part of quality assurance. East Troy, Wis.
Some reflections on what it means to be a weaver
Next was a station room where variations of X-Cor and K-Cor structural foam products are developed for use in sandwich composites. One example is airframe substructure components. Coffenberry showed a variety of samples, including sine-wave floor beams that feature sine wave-shaped Pi preforms. The counter-rotating propeller is used at the rear of the plane with blades more than twice the length of those in LEAP and open to the atmosphere. In addition to its work in polymer matrix composite applications, AEC also is applying its technical know-how to ceramic matrix composites CMCs , where the 3-D fiber architecture overcomes some of the inherent brittleness of the matrix.
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Federal Aviation Admin. It has the potential to reduce weight and noise and extend part life vs. AEC also sees growth beyond aerospace. Among the new markets AEC has evaluated, automotive is one where its technology might edge out metals and conventional composites. AEC sees potential thanks to the demand for vehicle weight reduction driven by government-mandated fuel efficiency and emission standards.
To demonstrate the advantages of its 3-D composites, AEC has been working on a generic car door side-impact beam, which could offer up to 25 percent weight savings and a significant increase in energy absorption, compared to the baseline design in high-strength steel. Albany International Rochester, N.
Albany was a key innovator when the Jacquard-type looms used in weaving were transitioned from one-layer to three-layer fabrics to meet this need. For example, it developed the technology necessary to make seams in these massive fabrics with nearly the same strength as the base fabric but without imprinting the seam line onto the paper. Albany also helped pioneer automation of and improved control over the weaving process, including integrated process-data collection, automated fiber handling and error detection.
Multilayer fabrics have been woven on traditional 2-D weaving looms for some time. Familiar examples are webbing, belting and, as noted for Albany, papermaking fabric. These fabrics are produced by splitting the warp fibers oriented in the direction of fabric production to create multiple sheds spaces through which the weft or filling fibers are inserted at right angles to the warp. If the warp ends are moved up or down during weaving in Jacquard looms this is done using heddles , pictured at far right , then the fabric can be made to consist of several layers stacked vertically.
Warp ends can be interlaced with fill fibers in the adjacent layer to produce layer-to-layer locked fabrics, or they can be interlaced with fill fibers in the top and bottom layers to create angle-interlocked fabrics.go to link
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AEC, thus, is pursuing the potential for 3-D textile preforms to help reduce the cost of unitized composite structures. Applications aren't as demanding as airframe composites, but requirements are still exacting — passenger safety is key. The structural properties of composite materials are derived primarily from the fiber reinforcement.
Fiber types, their manufacture, their uses and the end-market applications in which they find most use are described.
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